Vitrectomy procedure consists in the partial or complete removal of the vitreous humor and represents one of the most advanced techniques of intraocular microsurgery that have been developed in the past 30-40 years. It is the most common intraocular procedure after cataract removal.
Routine procedures include entering the eye with tiny instruments through three apertures of 1mm (three-port vitrectomy) from the outside of the globe into a part of the eye called pars plana, drawing out the vitreous humor by suction and replacing it with a balanced salt solution (BSS) or other substances.
The instruments used are:
1. a miniature vitreous cutter that cuts and removes the vitreous via suction;
2. a fiberoptic light source (endoluce);
3. an infusion tube that provides the special saline solution that gradually substitutes the vitreous being removed.
The three instruments are inserted through the tiny incisions made from the outside of the globe into a part of the eye pars-plana.
Vitrectomy is used to treat a wide range of disorders, some of which involve the vitreous or limited areas of the retina (vitreoretinal surgery):
proliferative diabetic retinopathy, complicated retinal detachment, opacity of vitreous, intravitreal foreign bodies, structural changes of the vitreous following cataract surgery.